Developmental Biology and Genetics - Course Description
Wednesday, August 15, 2012
Key Words for Block Book Contents
7 Jan. W. de la Mare Verse about Miss T. From one cell to 100 trillion and everything the right size & in the right place. The Great Debate: Epigenesis or Pre-formation (Animalculists and Ovists). The FIRST WEEK of human development (+ drawing). When sperm cells meet ooctye…. (+ drawing). Comparison of oocyte (egg) and sperm.
8 Jan. The FIRST WEEK of embryonic development (+ drawings). The SECOND WEEK of embryonic development (+ handout).
9 Jan. THIRD WEEK: Primary streak & three germ layers (+ drawings). Neural groove becomes neural tube (+ drawings with handout). Formation of vascular system (+ handout).
10 Jan. FOURTH WEEK: Handout drawings with descriptions. FIFTH TO EIGHTH WEEK: Handout drawings with descriptions.
11 Jan. Key developments from 10th week until birth. Handout of body proportions from before birth until adulthood.
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14 Jan. Tissue cultures. Compare cells “in vitro” with cells “in vivo.” The importance of cell death (apoptosis) in living organisms.
15 Jan. Cancer (+ drawings). Mitosis (+ drawings).
16 Jan. Mitosis handout. Diagram of typical cell based on electron microscope.
17 Jan. List of cell organelles. Handout of cell based on electron micrographs. Centrifugal differentiation handout. Can a cell be compared to a factory? Mitochondria, ATP & ADP. Cell differentiation diagram.
18 Jan. What do we see in the cell differentiation diagram? Gregor Mendel. F1 generation is uniform purple (with sketch). F2 generation data (flower color, stem length, seed color etc.). What is the ratio between the two traits in question?
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21 Jan. Phenotypic ratio for F2 is 3:1. Thought model leads to genotypic ratio of 1:2:1 for F2. Dominant & Recessive traits. Phenotype & Genotype. Heterozygous & Homozygous. Three aspects of Mendel’s approach that were new in biology.
Cytologists discover Mendel, his research is linked to chromosomes and meiosis. Genes postulated as similar to “pearls on a string.” T.H. Morgan and Drosophila. Linkage groups, crossing over (genetic recombination) and chromosome maps.
22 Jan. Polygenetic inheritance (many genes influence one trait), pleiotropy (one gene effects many traits) (with sketches). Quote from Morgan. Biochemistry enters the search. Significance of enzymes. Protein or nucleic acid? Watson and Crick. The double helix (w. drawings).
23 Jan. Handout to DNA/RNA and protein synthesis. Excerpts from S. Talbott on understanding DNA’s role within the organism.
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This block conncentrates on central characteristics of organisms, in particular the relationship between an organism as a totality and its microscopic components—in particular the cell. To this end we consider human and experimental embryology, the nature of the cell and the development of genetics from Mendel to DNA. These considerations required a mode of thinking which, while attendant to minute detail, is able to see that the part can only be understood in light of the larger whole.
Possible topics include: epigenesis and preformation; human embryology,;amphibian embryology; Spemann’s Nobel Prize winning amphibian experiments and “the organizer”; microscopic research: light and electron microscopes; mitosis and meiosis; cell differentiation; regeneration experiments; morphogenesis; cells “in vitro” and “in vivo”; cancer; Mendel’s experiments and new approach to heredity; the unfolding of genetics from T.H. Morgan to the discovery of “the double helix”; the human genome project; questions raised by recent epigenetic discoveries.
Faculty: Michael Holdrege, High School Sciences Teacher
Class Dates: January 7th-January 25th, 2013
Curriculum Area: Morning Lesson Block
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